Books

Use the title page (inside the book) - not the book cover, to find information about author, title, publisher etc. for a book or a chapter.

  • Write the book title in italics
  • Put well-known abbreviations in square brackets the first time you use them, such as [NIH]
  • Chapters: you have to write the title of the book as well

Without an author
Author(s)
Editor(s)
Institution, association etc. as author   
2nd, 3rd etc. edition and print run of a book
Yearbook
Electronic book (e-book)
Translated book
Book with multiple volumes, refer to the entire work   
Book with multiple volumes, refer to one volume
Chapter in a book
Chapter in an electronic book (e-book) 
Translated chapter

Without an author   

  • In the text: (Title, year)
    (Take your hat off, 2016)
  • In the reference list: Title in italics. (Year). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Take your hat off: Some moral considerations. (2016). Jongskollen: Thoms.

Author(s)

  • In the text: (Author & Author, year)
    (Nilsen & Eide, 2012)
  • In the reference list: Author & author. (Year). Title of the book in italics. Place of publication: Publisher.
    Nilsen, I. & Eide, A. (2012). Almost at the top: How to get to the top? Oslo: Cappelen.

Editor(s)    

The abbreviation for editor is stated in the book's language:
Redaktør/redaktører = Red. 
Editor = Ed. 
Editors = Eds.   

  • In the text: (Name of the editor, year)
    (Bale & Krogh Christensen, 2004)
    (Williams, 2001)
  • In the reference list: Name of the editor. (Abbreviation for editor.). (Year). Title of the book in italics (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Bale, J. & Krogh Christensen, M. (Eds.). (2004). Post-Olympism?: Questioning sport in the twenty-first century. Oxford: Berg.
       
    Williams, J. M. (Ed.). (2001). Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (4th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Institution, association etc. as author

If the institution, association etc. has a well-known abbreviation of the name, put the abbreviation in square brackets the first time and use only the abbreviation afterwards. Use the full name in the reference list – not the abbreviation.

  • In the text: (Name of institution, association etc., year)
    The first time you cite the book: (Norges idrettsforbund og olympiske komité [NIF], 2001)
    Next time: (NIF, 2001)
  • In the reference list: Name of institution, association etc. (Year). Title of the book in italics. Place of publication: Publisher.
    Norges idrettsforbund og olympiske komité. (2001). Strategiplan for norsk idretts internasjonale arbeid: 2002-2006. Oslo: NIF.

2nd, 3rd etc. edition and print run of a book

Edition information must be included from the 2nd edition. If the book is a 1st edition, you do not include that information.

Print run is not stated. In the example below, the year stated is for the 4th edition - regardless of what print run it is.

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Gjerset, 2012)
  • In the reference list: Author (Year). Title of the book in italics (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Gjerset, A. (2012). Training (4th ed.). Oslo: Gyldendal.

Yearbook    

Yearbooks are cited like books with or without author/editor.   

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (The Football Association of Norway , 2008)
    (Hagen & Nilsson, 2005)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in italics. Place of publication: Publisher.
    The Football Assocation of Norway. (2008). Annual report ... Oslo: NFF.

    Hagen, N. & Nilsson, A. (Red.). (2005). The yearbook of Høydehuset. Hamar: Høydehuset.

Electronic book  (e-book)

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Schwarz & Hunter, 2008)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in italics. Retrieved from URL
    Schwarz, E. & Hunter, J. (2008). Advanced theory and practice in sport marketing. Retrieved from http://www.tandfebooks.com/isbn/978-0-7506-8491-0

Translated book    

Translator and information about the original edition must be included.   

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Bahr & Mæhlum, 2003)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in italics (translated by Name of translator). Place of publication: Publisher. (Original edition published in year).
    Bahr, R. & Mæhlum, S. (Eds.). (2003). Clinical guide to sports injuries (translated by E. Matteson). Campaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics. (Original edition published in 1990). 

Book with multiple volumes, refer to the entire work    

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Olstad & Tønnesson, 1986-1987)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in italics (Number of volumes). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Olstad, F. & Tønnesson, S. (1986-1987). Norwegian sports history (2 volumes). Oslo: Aschehoug.

Book with multiple volumes, refer to one volume   

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Tønnesson, 1986)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in italics: volume x. Title of the volume. Place of publication: Publisher.
    Tønnesson, S. (1986). Norwegian sports history: Volume 2. Public health, fitness, stars 1939-1986. Oslo: Aschehoug.

Chapter in a book    

Do not invert the name of the author(s)/editor(s) of the book – see the examples for the reference list:

  • In the text: (Author of the chapter, year)
    (Martinsen & Moser, 2008)
  • In the reference list: Author of the chapter. (Year). Title of the chapter. In Author of the book, Title of the book in italics (p. x-x). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Martinsen, E. W. & Moser, T. (2008). Corporeality, exercise, mental health and mental disorders. In T. S. S. Schilhab, M. Juelskjær & T. Moser (Eds.), Learning bodies (p. 165-191). København: Danish School of Education Press.

Chapter in an electronic book (e-book)

  • In the text: (Author of the chapter, year)
    (Rhind, Davis & Jowett, 2014)
  • In the reference list: Author of the chapter. (Year). Title of the chapter. In Author of the book, Title of the book in italics (p. x-x). Retrieved from URL

If the e-book is missing number pages, write the title of the book followed by one of these:

  • the sentence's number if available, or you can count sentences from the start of the document
  • a headline and the sentence's number within that section
  • a shortened headline (or the 3-4 first words of the headline) in quotation marks, if the headline is to long to be written in it's entirety

Translated chapter

Translator and information about the original edition must be included. In some books, each chapter has it's own translator, and that's the translator you use in the reference.

  • In the text: (Author of the chapter, year)
    (Dewey, 2001)
  • In the reference list: Author of the chapter. (Year). Title of the chapter (translated by name). (Original text published in year). In: Author of the book, Title of the book in italics (p. x-x). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Dewey, J. (2001). Erfaring og tenkning (oversatt av B. Christensen). (Original text published in 1916). In: E. L. Dale (Ed.), Om utdanning: Klassiske tekster (p. 53-66). Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.