Useful articles

For Parents


For Coaches






Other useful websites


Research articles

Adie, J. W., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2012). Perceived coach-autonomy support, basic need satisfaction and the well-and ill-being of elite youth soccer players: A longitudinal investigation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(1), 51-59.

Bean, C. N., Fortier, M., Post, C., & Chima, K. (2014). Understanding how organized youth sport may be harming individual players within the family unit: A literature review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 11(10), 10226-10268.

BOIXADos, M., Cruz, J., Torregrosa, M., & Valiente, L. (2004). Relationships among motivational climate, satisfaction, perceived ability, and fair play attitudes in young soccer players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16(4), 301-317.

Danish, S., Forneris, T., Hodge, K., & Heke, I. (2004). Enhancing youth development through sport. World leisure journal, 46(3), 38-49.

DiFiori, J. P., Benjamin, H. J., Brenner, J. S., Gregory, A., Jayanthi, N., Landry, G. L., & Luke, A. (2014). Overuse injuries and burnout in youth sports: a position statement from the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. British journal of sports medicine, 48(4), 287-288.

Fenton, S. A., Duda, J. L., & Barrett, T. (2016). Optimising physical activity engagement during youth sport: a self-determination theory approach. Journal of sports sciences, 1-11.

Foster, D., Maynard, I., Butt, J., & Hays, K. (2016). Delivery of Psychological Skills Training to Youngsters. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(1), 62-77.

Harris, B. S., Blom, L. C., & Visek, A. J. (2013). Assessment in youth sport: Practical issues and best practice guidelines. The Sport Psychologist, 27(2), 201.

Harris, B. S., Watson, I., & Jack, C. (2014). Developmental Considerations in Youth Athlete Burnout: A Model for Youth Sport Participants. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 8(1).

Harris, B. S., & Watson Ii, J. C. (2014). Developmental Considerations in Youth Athlete Burnout: A Model for Youth Sport Participants. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 8(1), 1-18.

Jõesaar, H., Hein, V., & Hagger, M. S. (2012). Youth athletes’ perception of autonomy support from the coach, peer motivational climate and intrinsic motivation in sport setting: One-year effects. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(3), 257-262.

Jowett, G. E., Hill, A. P., Hall, H. K., & Curran, T. (2016). Perfectionism, Burnout and Engagement in Youth Sport: The Mediating Role of Basic Psychological Needs. Psychology of Sport and Exercise.

Lloyd, R. S., Oliver, J. L., Faigenbaum, A. D., Howard, R., Croix, M. B. D. S., Williams, C. A., . . . Thomas, D. P. (2015). Long-term athletic development-part 1: a pathway for all youth. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(5), 1439-1450.

Martinent, G., Decret, J.-C., Guillet-Descas, E., & Isoard-Gautheur, S. (2014). A reciprocal effects model of the temporal ordering of motivation and burnout among youth table tennis players in intensive training settings. Journal of sports sciences, 32(17), 1648-1658.

Mazzer, K. R., & Rickwood, D. J. (2013). Community-based roles promoting youth mental health: comparing the roles of teachers and coaches in promotion, prevention and early intervention. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 15(1), 29-42.

Mouratidis, A., & Michou, A. (2011). Self‐determined motivation and social achievement goals in children’s emotions. Educational Psychology, 31(1), 67-86.

Myer, G. D., Kushner, A. M., Faigenbaum, A. D., Kiefer, A., Kashikar-Zuck, S., & Clark, J. F. (2013). Training the developing brain, part I: cognitive developmental considerations for training youth. Current sports medicine reports, 12(5), 304-310.

Newin, J., Bloom, G. A., & Loughead, T. M. (2008). Youth ice hockey coaches' perceptions of a team-building intervention program. Sport Psychologist, 22(1), 54.

O'Rourke, D. J., Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Cumming, S. P. (2012). Parent-initiated motivational climate, self-esteem, and autonomous motivation in young athletes: Testing propositions from achievement goal and self-determination theories. Child Development Research, 2012.

Quested, E., Ntoumanis, N., Viladrich, C., Haug, E., Ommundsen, Y., Van Hoye, A., . . . Duda, J. L. (2013). Intentions to drop-out of youth soccer: A test of the basic needs theory among European youth from five countries. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(4), 395-407.

Ross, A. J., Mallett, C. J., Parkes, J. F., & Strachan, L. (2015). The Influence of Parent Sport Behaviours on Children's Development: Youth Coach and Administrator Perspectives. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 10(4), 605-621.

Rottensteiner, C., Tolvanen, A., Laakso, L., & Konttinen, N. (2015). Youth Athletes' Motivation, Perceived Competence, and Persistence in Organized Team Sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 38(4), 432-449.

Russell, W. D. (2014). The relationship between youth sport specialization, reasons for participation, and youth sport participation motivations: A retrospective study. Journal of Sport Behavior, 37(3), 286.

Russell, W. D., & Limle, A. N. (2013). The relationship between youth sport specialization and involvement in sport and physical activity in young adulthood. Journal of Sport Behavior, 36(1), 82.

Sharp, L.-A., & Hodge, K. (2011). Sport psychology consulting effectiveness: The sport psychology consultant's perspective. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23(3), 360-376.

Sheridan, D., Coffee, P., & Lavallee, D. (2014). A systematic review of social support in youth sport. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 7(1), 198-228.

Slutzky, C. B., & Simpkins, S. D. (2009). The link between children's sport participation and self-esteem: Exploring the mediating role of sport self-concept. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(3), 381-389. doi:

Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Barnett, N. P. (1995). Reduction of children's sport performance anxiety through social support and stress-reduction training for coaches. Journal of applied developmental psychology, 16(1), 125-142.

Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Curtis, B. (1979). Coach effectiveness training: A cognitive-behavioral approach to enhancing relationship skills in youth sport coaches. Journal of sport psychology, 1(1).

Smoll, F. L., Smith, R. E., Barnett, N. P., & Everett, J. J. (1993). Enhancement of children's self-esteem through social support training for youth sport coaches. Journal of applied psychology, 78(4), 602.

Theeboom, M., De Knop, P., & Weiss, M. R. (1995). Motivational climate, psychological responses, and motor skill development in children's sport: A field-based intervention study. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 294-294.

Vitali, F., Bortoli, L., Bertinato, L., Robazza, C., & Schena, F. (2015). Motivational climate, resilience, and burnout in youth sport. Sport Sciences for Health, 11(1), 103-108.

Wells, M. S., Ellis, G. D., Arthur-Banning, S. G., & Roark, M. (2006). Effect of Staged Practices and Motivational Climate on Goal Orientation and Sportsmanship in Community Youth Sport Experiences. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 24(4), 64-85.


Research Articles from FOBU:

Gjesdal, S. (2013). The motivational process in youth soccer: A self-determination theory perspective: a quantitative study on the relationships between coach behavior, need satisfaction, enjoyment and performance anxiety in youth soccer players.

Jordalen, G., Lemyre, P.-N., & Durand-Bush, N. (2016). Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes: The Importance of Motivation and Self-Control Competencies. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1867.

Kristiansen, E. (2015). Competing for culture: Young Olympians' narratives from the first winter Youth Olympic Games. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(1), 29-42.

Kristiansen, E., & Roberts, G. C. (2010). Young elite athletes and social support: Coping with competitive and organizational stress in “Olympic” competition. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(4), 686-695.

Lemyre, P.-N., Roberts, G. C., & Ommundsen, Y. (2002). Achievement goal orientations, perceived ability, and sportspersonship in youth soccer. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14(2), 120-136.

Miller, B. W., Roberts, G. C., & Ommundsen, Y. (2004). Effect of motivational climate on sportspersonship among competitive youth male and female football players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 14(3), 193-202.

Ommundsen, Y. (2004). Self-handicapping related to task and performance-approach and avoidance goals in physical education. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16(2), 183-197.

Ommundsen, Y. (2006). Pupils’ self-regulation in physical education: The role of motivational climates and differential achievement goals. European Physical Education Review, 12(3), 289-315.

Ommundsen, Y., & Kval⊘, S. E. (2007). Autonomy–Mastery, Supportive or Performance Focused? Different teacher behaviours and pupils' outcomes in physical education. Scandinavian journal of educational research, 51(4), 385-413.

Ommundsen, Y., Lemyre, N., Abrahamsen, F. E., & Roberts, G. C. (2013). The role of motivational climate for sense of vitality in organized youth grassroots football players: Do harmonious and obsessive types of passion play a mediating role?

Ommundsen, Y., Lemyre, P.-N., Abrahamsen, F., & Roberts, G. C. (2010). Motivational climate, need satisfaction, regulation of motivation and subjective vitality: a study of young soccer players. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 41(3), 216-242.

Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G. C., Lemyre, P.-N., & Miller, B. W. (2006). Parental and coach support or pressure on psychosocial outcomes of pediatric athletes in soccer. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 16(6), 522-526.

Ommundsen, Y., & Vaglum, P. (1991). Soccer competition anxiety and enjoyment in young boy players. The influence of perceived competence and significant others' emotional involvement. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 22(1), 35-49.

Ommundsen, Y., & Vaglum, P. (1997). Competence, perceived importance of competence and drop-out from soccer: a study of young players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 7, 373-383.

Seippel, Ø., Strandbu, Å., & Sletten, M. A. (2011). Ungdom og trening. Endring over tid og sosiale skillelinjer, 51-54.

Seippel, Ø. N. (2005). Orker ikke, gidder ikke, passer ikke? Om frafallet i norsk idrett.

Solstad, B. E., & Lemyre, P.-N. (2014). Why Coaches should Encourage Swimmers' Efforts to Succeed. Journal of Swimming Research, 22(1).

Solstad, B. E., van Hoye, A., & Ommundsen, Y. (2015). Social-contextual and intrapersonal antecedents of coaches' basic need satisfaction: The intervening variable effect of providing autonomy-supportive coaching. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 20, 84-93.

Toering, T. T., Elferink-Gemser, M. T., Jordet, G., & Visscher, C. (2009). Self-regulation and performance level of elite and non-elite youth soccer players. Journal of sports sciences, 27(14), 1509-1517.