Books

Use the title page (inside the book) - not the book cover, to find information about author, title, publisher etc. for a book or a chapter.

  • Write the book title in italics
  • Put well-known abbreviations in square brackets the first time you use them, such as [NIH]
  • Chapters: you have to write the title of the book as well

Without an author
Author(s)
Editor(s)
Institution, association etc. as author
Yearbook
Electronic book (e-book)
Translated book
Book with multiple volumes, refer to the entire work   
Book with multiple volumes, refer to one volume
Chapter in a book
Chapter in an electronic book (e-book) 

Without an author   

  • In the text: (Title, year)
    (Take your hat off, 2016)
  • In the reference list: Title in italics. (Year). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Take your hat off: Some moral considerations. (2016). Jongskollen: Thoms.

Author(s)

  • In the text: (Author & Author, year)
    (Nilsen & Eide, 2012)
  • In the reference list: Author & author. (Year). Title of the book in italics. Place of publication: Publisher.
    Nilsen, I. & Eide, A. (2012). Almost at the top: How to get to the top? Oslo: Cappelen.

Editor(s)    

The abbreviation for editor is stated in the book's language:
Redaktør/redaktører = Red. 
Editor = Ed. 
Editors = Eds.   

  • In the text: (Name of the editor, year)
    (Bale & Krogh Christensen, 2004)
    (Williams, 2001)
  • In the reference list: Name of the editor. (Abbreviation for editor.). (Year). Title of the book in italics (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Bale, J. & Krogh Christensen, M. (Eds.). (2004). Post-Olympism?: Questioning sport in the twenty-first century. Oxford: Berg.
       
    Williams, J. M. (Ed.). (2001). Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (4th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Institution, association etc. as author

If the institution, association etc. has a well-known abbreviation of the name, put the abbreviation in square brackets the first time and use only the abbreviation afterwards. Use the full name in the reference list – not the abbreviation.

  • In the text: (Name of institution, association etc., year)
    The first time you cite the book: (Norges idrettsforbund og olympiske komité [NIF], 2001)
    Next time: (NIF, 2001)
  • In the reference list: Name of institution, association etc. (Year). Title of the book in italics. Place of publication: Publisher.
    Norges idrettsforbund og olympiske komité. (2001). Strategiplan for norsk idretts internasjonale arbeid: 2002-2006. Oslo: NIF.

Yearbook    

Yearbooks are cited like books with or without author/editor.   

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (The Football Association of Norway , 2008)
    (Hagen & Nilsson, 2005)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in italics. Place of publication: Publisher.
    The Football Assocation of Norway. (2008). Annual report ... Oslo: NFF.

    Hagen, N. & Nilsson, A. (Red.). (2005). The yearbook of Høydehuset. Hamar: Høydehuset.

Electronic book  (e-book)

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Schwarz & Hunter, 2008)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in italics. Retrieved from URL
    Schwarz, E. & Hunter, J. (2008). Advanced theory and practice in sport marketing. Retrieved from http://www.tandfebooks.com/isbn/978-0-7506-8491-0

Translated book    

Translator and information about the original edition must be included.   

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Bahr & Mæhlum, 2003)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in italics (translated by Name of translator). Place of publication: Publisher. (Original edition published in year).
    Bahr, R. & Mæhlum, S. (Eds.). (2003). Clinical guide to sports injuries (translated by E. Matteson). Campaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics. (Original edition published in 1990). 

Book with multiple volumes, refer to the entire work    

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Olstad & Tønnesson, 1986-1987)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in italics (Number of volumes). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Olstad, F. & Tønnesson, S. (1986-1987). Norwegian sports history (2 volumes). Oslo: Aschehoug.

Book with multiple volumes, refer to one volume   

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Tønnesson, 1986)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in italics: volume x. Title of the volume. Place of publication: Publisher.
    Tønnesson, S. (1986). Norwegian sports history: Volume 2. Public health, fitness, stars 1939-1986. Oslo: Aschehoug.

Chapter in a book    

Do not invert the name of the author(s)/editor(s) of the book – see the examples for the reference list:

  • In the text: (Author of the chapter, year)
    (Martinsen & Moser, 2008)
  • In the reference list: Author of the chapter. (Year). Title of the chapter. In Author of the book, Title of the book in italics (p. x-x). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Martinsen, E. W. & Moser, T. (2008). Corporeality, exercise, mental health and mental disorders. In T. S. S. Schilhab, M. Juelskjær & T. Moser (Eds.), Learning bodies (p. 165-191). København: Danish School of Education Press.

Chapter in an electronic book (e-book)

  • In the text: (Author of the chapter, year)
    (Rhind, Davis & Jowett, 2014)
  • In the reference list: Author of the chapter. (Year). Title of the chapter. In Author of the book, Title of the book in italics (p. x-x). Retrieved from URL

If the e-book is missing number pages, write the title of the book followed by one of these:

  • the sentence's number if available, or you can count sentences from the start of the document
  • a headline and the sentence's number within that section
  • a shortened headline (or the 3-4 first words of the headline) in quotation marks, if the headline is to long to be written in it's entirety