Articles

Articles from a newspaper/journal in print is cited differently from an article in electronic version (from the internet).

  • Write the name of the newspaper or journal+volume in italics.
  • Include URL or doi in the reference list for journal articles from the internet. doi is a persistent link to a web document.

Newspaper article
Newspaper article form the Internet
Journal article
Journal article - supplement, special issue and abstract 
Journal article from the Internet
Journal article, submitted but not yet accepted for publishing
Journal article published online ahead of print
Journal article in press (not published yet)   
Conference contribution

Newspaper article

You can add information to describe the contents of the article by using [square brackets] – see the example below with the author Stokkan.  

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Leander, 2003)
    (Stokkan, 2004)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year, date). Title of the article. Name of the newspaper in italics, p. x.
    Leander, S. (2003, the 20th of May). Extreme appetite for training. New York Times, p. 33.
       
    Stokkan, M. (2004, the 3rd of April). Out of the shadow [Interview with football coach Ole Gunnar  Solskjær]. The Times, p. 46.

Newspaper article from the Internet

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Halvorsen, 2013)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the newspaper in italics. Retrieved date from URL
    Halvorsen, O. J. (2013). Stay below these temperatures in the cold. DNAktiv. Retrieved the 18th of January 2013 from http://www.dn.no/dnaktiv/article2543513.ece 

Journal article

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Fasting, Brackenridge & Sundgot-Borgen, 2004)
    (Goksøyr & Olstad, 2004)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the journal, volume in italics, p-p.
    Fasting, K., Brackenridge, C. & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2004). Prevalence of sexual harassment among Norwegian female elite athletes in relation to sport type. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 39, 373-386.

    Goksøyr, M. & Olstad, F. (2004). Between "people educators" and "sensation seekers": A historical perspective on media and football. Moving Bodies2, 19-32.

Journal article - supplement, special issue and abstract 

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Andersen, Engebretsen & Bahr, 2004)
    (Seippel, 2001)
    (Torsteinsen et al., 2010)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the journal, volume in italics(number/issue), p-p.
    Andersen, T. E., Engebretsen, L. & Bahr, R. (2004). Rule violations as a cause of injuries in male Norwegian professional football: Are the referees doing their job? American Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(Suppl. 1), 62S-68S.

    Seippel, K. (Ed.). (2001). Sports [Special issue]. Sociology today, 31(1).

    Torsteinsen, S. T. et al. (2010). The effect of exercise on the kinetics of blood flow in lower limb arteries in humans [Abstract]. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 81(Suppl.), S15.

Journal article from the Internet

If DOI is not available, the URL must be given.  

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Butler, Davis & Hamill, 2006)
    (McWhirter & Pennington, 1994)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the journal in italics. doi: (or Retrieved date from URL)
    Butler, R. J., Davis, I. S. & Hamill, J. (2006). Interaction of arch type and footwear on running mechanics. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 34, 1998-2005. doi: 10.1177/0363546506290401

    McWhirter, J. P. & Pennington, C. R. (1994). Incidence and recognition of malnutrition in hospital. British Medical Journal, 308, 945-948. Retrieved the 13th of December 2006 from          http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/308/6934/945

Journal article, submitted but not yet accepted for publishing

You do not provide the name of the journal or publisher  the article is submitted to.

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Karlsen, 2009)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article in italics. Manuscript submitted for publication.
    Karlsen, H. (2009). The trolls in Hedals forest: Do they exist? Manuscript submitted for publication.

Journal article published online ahead of print

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Nauck & Lohrer, 2009)
    (Owe, Nystad & Bø, 2008)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article. Name of journal in italics, in press. Retrieved date from URL (or Retrieved date. doi: x)
    Nauck, T. & Lohrer, H. (2009). Translation, cross-cultural adaption and validation of the German   version of the foot and ankle ability measure for patients with chronic ankle instability. British Journal of Sports Medicine, in press. Retrieved the 14th of December 2009. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.067637

    Owe, K.M., Nystad, W. & Bø, K. (2008). Correlates of regular exercise during pregnancy: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, in press. Retrieved the 21st of August 2008 from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/120736626/PDFSTART?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

Journal article in press (not published yet)   

  • In the text: (Author, in press)
    (Syversen, in press)
  • In the reference list: Author. (in press). Title. Name of the journal in italics.
    Syversen, H. (in press). Rehabilitation of hamstring injuries in tennis. American journal of sports medicine.

Conference contribution

  • In the text: (Author, year)
    (Pedersen, 2003)
  • In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the contribution. In Author, Title of the book in italics. (p. x-x). Place of publication: Publisher.
    Pedersen, K. (2003). Is it “uncool” to like nature?: Young people’s narratives on nature. In P. Becker & C. Sack (Eds.), Sharing diversity and building up European networks: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference of EOE. (p. 29-38). Czarnocin: European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education and Experiential Learning.